The degradation mechanism due to saline efflorescences is due to the crystallization pressure of some salts, which have the characteristic of greatly increasing their volume during the transition to the solid phase, following the evaporation of the solvent; the pressures caused within the pores are such that exceed the material’s resilience and the result is the continuous erosion and disintegration of the surface layers of materials, causing fragmentation and in extreme cases pulverization of the stone.
Several saline compounds can be found, in the form of watery solutions, inside the masonry, coming from the ground (especially Nitrates and Chlorides) or from the deposition of aerosols present in the atmosphere (Chlorides and Sulfates), or from the same material used for construction (Sulfates) or from localized infiltration.
The decisive and conservative intervention of the problem, provides for the complete removal of the efflorescences present on the surface and if possible also the extraction of salts within the same materials. Furthermore, it is essential to solve the causes that produce the crystallization of salts with targeted and definitive interventions.
In the event that the salt problem is mainly caused by the interaction between material and the external environment, after cleaning operations it is necessary to make the affected surfaces water-repellent in order to keep the salts in solution within the materials, thus avoiding their crystallization in the outside.
Dry brush the surfaces affected by efflorescences
If necessary, apply ESTRATTORE DI SALI
Complete the removal of salts with PULI AC
Apply, on a clean and dry surface, the ANTISALI A protective
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In order to carry out a resolutive intervention of the problem it is necessary to analyze and address the root cause that lead the salts to come out.